On this day in 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, thus ending the costly and controversial Mexican-American War. Guadalupe Hidalgo, a city north of Mexico City, was where the Mexican government fled as the Americans advanced.
The Treaty also extended the boundaries of the United States to the Pacific Ocean. This westward expansion included the areas that would eventually become the states of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, along with parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
This nearly completed the continental expansion of the United States, called “Manifest Destiny,” at the time, and championed by President James K. Polk. Similarly, the politically contentious war spurred the political ascension of future presidents Zachary Taylor and Abraham Lincoln.
Author of Peace
The Treaty begins with these immensely powerful words: “In the name of Almighty God… .”
Here is the opening from the Spanish version: “En el nombre de Dios Todo-poderoso… ”
Finally, here’s a key excerpt of the Treaty:
“The… United States… and the… Mexican Republic… have, under the protection of Almighty God, the author of peace, arranged, agreed upon, and signed the following: Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits, and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic.”